Painful sensations in the joints of the fingers can occur for various reasons. Any pathological condition requires competent treatment.
Articular diseases require a holistic approach. These include medication, diet, physical therapy, special gymnastics and alternative medicine.
Possible causes of pain in the joints of the fingers
Joint pain can occur at any age. There are many possible reasons for this phenomenon.
In 40% of cases, the pain in the joints of the fingers is caused by this. This pathology is often called polyarthritis or nodular fingers. It belongs to dystrophic diseases and is characterized by slow progression, so patients often ignore the first stage of the disease.
The disease most commonly affects people over the age of 50 and rarely affects people under the age of 40.
The causes of polyosteoarthritis are often called heredity, but there are other factors that cause it:
- violation of material exchange;
- pathology of the thyroid and other endocrine glands;
Joints contain cartilage that is beginning to deteriorate. This means that natural lubrication is dangerous, causing dryness and cracking.
Due to the lack of lubrication and drying, the articular cartilage rubs against each other, which leads to the inflammatory process. Against this background, an abnormally inflamed joint fluid forms, which expands the joints from the inside. The result is a deformity accompanied by painful sensations.
Polyosteoarthritis is accompanied by other symptoms. These are mainly represented by the Bouchard and Heberden nodes:
- Bouchard nodesdevelop slowly without complications. They usually form on the lateral surfaces of the joints and give them a fusiform shape.
- Heberden's nodesaffect the distal phalangeal joints in the dorsal and lateral parts. They are characterized by symmetrical development in both hands. The formation of nodules is often accompanied by swelling and redness of the skin around the joints. Pain and burning sensations are seen, and in 30% of cases the pathology is asymptomatic.
As polyosteoarthritis develops, joint stiffness increases. The result of the pathology is knotted fingers.
Rheumatoid Arthritis and Still Disease
This disease is a systemic pathology of connective tissue and has a complex autoimmune pathogenesis. The pathology rarely manifests itself in patients under 30 years of age. It is 5 times less in men.
The symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis depend on its stage:
- The initial stage of the disease is characterized by periarticular edema of the bursa. This causes pain, swelling of the periarticular region and an increase in local temperature.
- In the second stage, the cells begin to divide rapidly, and as a result, the synovium becomes denser. In the third stage, inflamed cells produce an enzyme that affects both cartilage and bones, so the affected joints are generally deformed. This stage is accompanied by an increase in pain and loss of motor function.
There are three possible causes of rheumatoid arthritis:
- Infections. Pathological changes can be caused by some paramyxoviruses, herpes viruses, hepatoviruses, retroviruses.
- Triggers. Pathological changes can cause hypothermia, intoxication, stress, taking certain medications, hyperinsolation, endocrinopathy.
The disease is still a type of rheumatoid arthritis. It is usually accompanied by fever, rash and itching. The disease is more commonly diagnosed in children. In addition to joints, Still's disease can affect the lymph nodes, causing pleurisy, pericarditis.
This is one of the forms of pathological arthritis and can occur after 20 years. It develops on the background of psoriasis, but in some cases before it.
In addition to painful sensations, the pathology is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- swelling of the joints;
- blue-purple periarticular region by skin;
- appearance of deposits and depressions on the nails;
- light hardness.
There is a destructive pathological form characterized by rapid bone erosion. The joint is fraught with loss of mobility.
The inflammatory process can affect not only the joints, but also some organs. Skin plaques, which are characteristic of psoriasis in this form of arthritis, are often accompanied by the appearance of acne.
Possible causes of psoriatic arthritis are:
- alcohol abuse;
- skin damage;
- side effects of some drugs;
- changes in hormonal levels;
- Excessive ultraviolet radiation.
This type of arthritis is also called septic and is characterized by an inflammatory process caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites.
There are many signs of pathology - the clinical picture depends on the cause of the infection.
The main symptoms of the disease are:
- restriction of mobility;
- hyperemia of the affected area;
As the cause of the pathology is an infection, it may be accompanied by fever, chills and intoxication syndrome.
Infectious arthritis can develop against the background of another disease - rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, diabetes, obesity. The cause may be alcohol or drug addiction, a sexually transmitted infection.
This pathology is also called gout arthritis. It is a metabolic disease. In this condition, uric acid or sodium monourate accumulates in the tissues of the body. Gout is less common among women.
It is characterized by pathological paroxysmal character. Exacerbation episodes can last from 3 days to a week and a half. Attacks are characterized by a sharp appearance and the same rapid stop. Seizures are an inflammatory process.
Exacerbation of the disease often begins at night and may be accompanied by the following symptoms:
- the pain is exacerbated by movement;
- The skin on the inflamed joint turns red;
- body temperature rises;
- balls form around inflamed joints - whitish growths under the skin;
- lesions are usually unilateral.
In addition to the acute period, there are latent and chronic stages of pathology. In the first case, the course of the disease is asymptomatic, and the only symptom is hyperuricemia (blood test). The chronic phase is characterized by long-term remission.
This is a pathological form of osteoarthritis that affects only the thumb. In most cases, rhizarthrosis is a manifestation of polyosteoarthritis, but in every 4-5 patients it is an independent disease.
Trauma causes this pathology in about every second person. It can be home or sports.
There are other causes of pathology:
- incomplete rehabilitation for wrist fracture;
- permanent injury to the joint capsule;
- joint dysplasia;
- disorders of the endocrine system;
- metabolic disease;
- The effect of some drugs that cause changes in cartilage tissue.
There are 3 stages of pathology:
- At first, a person only experiences anxiety.
- Then bone growths appear and the painful sensations intensify due to the exposure of the nerve endings.
- In the final stage, the thumb becomes severely deformed and can completely lose mobility.
Pain is the main symptom of the disease. Movement under cold or hot water is intensified by a drop in atmospheric pressure. At first the pain is excruciating and in the final stages of the pathology it is simply unbearable.
De Quervain's disease (tenosynovitis)
In this case, only the joints of the thumb become inflamed. This pathology is triggered by continuous and monotonous movements of the hands, which cause minor damage to the tendon extending along the back of the wrist. Trauma can be another cause of illness.
The disease is often associated with certain professions:
- athletes (tennis players, skiers);
This pathology can develop at any age. With it, painful sensations can occur spontaneously, but are more provoked by the load on the thumb - pressing, stretching, trying to catch an object.
This condition is also called Knott's or snap finger disease. The reason is inflammation of the tendon and the formation of nodules on it.
In this situation, the affected finger bends and returns to its original position with difficulty.
Painful sensations occur when the finger is bent and stretched. In addition to pain, other symptoms are characteristic of the disease:
- increased sensitivity;
- joint swelling;
- Round (knot) formation.
Stenotic ligamentitis can cause rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus, high stress in the joints.
In each pathological condition, there may be several possible reasons for its development. There are also a number of risk factors that allow finger joints to develop more:
- hereditary tendency;
- chronic infection;
- diseases of the immune system;
- material metabolism pathology;
- changed hormonal background;
- trauma and microtrauma;
- long-term adverse effects.
When pain in the joints of the fingers first appears, they usually consult a therapist who prescribes the initial examination and consult a narrower specialist - surgeon, neurologist, traumatologist, arthrologist, rheumatologist, orthopedist, reflexologist, osteopath, endocrinologist, dietitian, phthisiologist.
In any case, the diagnosis begins with a visual examination. The specialist then prescribes standard laboratory blood and urine tests. It allows you to identify the inflammatory process in the body and assess some important indicators (albumin, globulin fractions, iron content).
refers to joint drilling laboratory methods. A needle is inserted into its cavity to collect synovial fluid. This test is also called arthrosynthesis.
Depending on the instrumental diagnostic methods and conditions, the following tests may be performed:
- x-ray.This method allows you to identify trauma, fractures, tumors and other damage to bone tissue.
- Ultrasound examination.This technique is used to examine soft tissues. In addition, you can check the condition of the vessels using ultrasound.
- Tomography- computer, magnetic resonance imaging. It is better to use CT to examine bone structures - the examination is similar to X-rays, but more informative. MRI is more effective in the study of soft tissues
- scintigraphy.This study is conducted using a radio indicator.
- Electrocardiogram.Such a diagnosis allows you to check whether the pathology affects the heart.
Treatment of pain in the fingers of the joints of the hands
Any disease requires certain measures. In most cases, the mainstay of treatment is medication in combination with physiotherapy and special gymnastics. Some diseases require a special diet. Folk recipes can also be effective in the treatment of joint pathologies.
Various drugs are the main treatment for most diseases.
In case of joint damage, apply the following medications:
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.Such drugs are used for various inflammatory processes. They not only reduce inflammation but also reduce pain and fever. Such drugs are produced in various dosage forms - for topical use, oral administration, injection.
- Antibiotics.Such drugs are used in the inflammatory process and the infectious origin of the pathology. In order to determine antibiotic therapy, the causative agent of the disease is first determined to determine the sensitivity to the drug.
- Glucocorticosteroids.These drugs are steroids and anti-inflammatory. Their actions accelerate the recovery process. They are also available in various dosage forms.
- Chondroprotectors.These drugs are used as part of a comprehensive treatment. Accelerates the recovery process, prevents the recurrence of pathology.
- Analgesicscan be used for unbearable severe pain. These can be either topical medications in the form of creams or gels, or medications for oral or injectable use.
- Immunosuppressants.Such drugs are used when the pathology is autoimmune.
Medication should only be prescribed by a doctor. Each patient needs an individual approach, so even with the same diseases in different people, the required set of medications may be radically different.
Alternative medicine is used to treat a variety of diseases, including those that affect the joints.
The following folk recipes can be effective:
- Melt propolis and mix it with vegetable oil - sunflower or corn oil is more suitable. The resulting composition should be applied as an ointment by rubbing on the affected areas.
- Rub with honey and horseradish. The products should be mixed in equal proportions.
- Dissolve a tablespoon of mustard powder in half a glass of vodka and massage the affected areas with this composition.
- Cook unpeeled potatoes, knead and apply hot compresses to inflamed areas.
- Make the onion muscular and apply a compress to the affected areas. You should repeat the procedure up to three times a day for half an hour.
- Lilac tincture helps a lot. You need to fill 3 tbsp. l. raw with a glass of vodka and leave for a week in the dark. Rub the affected areas daily with a filtered mixture for at least half a month.
- Cook the round oats to get the consistency of the gel, cool slightly, soak a bandage inside and apply to the affected areas, cover with polyethylene. Remove the compress after an hour.
- In case of inflammation, dissolve 1 teaspoon. soda in milk and drink.
- If the inflammatory process worsens, you can apply a fresh cabbage leaf rubbed with honey on the affected area.
- Legs with affected joints can be kept in the bath with the addition of birch water.
- Heat the salt or buckwheat in a frying pan, place in a piece of bag and leave on the affected area for a few hours.
- It is useful to use an infusion of bay leaves inside. To do this, pour a glass of boiling water over a few leaves and insist.
- Honey black radish juice is useful. You should take a spoon with such a tool three times a day.
- It is useful to use juices for joint pathologies. One glass of cranberry or lingonberry juice and birch juice a day is enough.
Only traditional medicine is suitable in the early stages of pathological development. In other cases, it should be used in conjunction with traditional methods. Self-medication is ineffective and the pathology will worsen during this period.
Physiotherapy is one of the components of a comprehensive approach to joint pathologies. It is performed only on the instructions of a doctor. There are many methods of physiotherapy, so the appropriate choice is made individually.
The following procedures are suitable for various pathologies of the finger joints:
- magnetotherapy - stable, impulse;
- laser therapy;
- ozokerite therapy;
- diadynamic therapy;
- oxygen therapy;
- shock wave therapy;
- ozone therapy.
Various therapeutic methods have been developed to restore joint mobility, restore blood circulation, muscle tone, strengthen metabolic processes and accelerate recovery.
There are certain contraindications to any physiotherapy method, so they should be used only as prescribed by your doctor.
Special finger movements are part of a comprehensive treatment approach. This type of gymnastics restores blood circulation and mobility, reduces pain and has a general strengthening effect.
You can warm your hands before gymnastics if there are no contraindications. Just soak your hands in warm water for 5 minutes or apply a heating pad to them.
The following exercises are effective for various joint pathologies:
- Fists are squeezed and opened. You need to gently squeeze your hand with your fist so that your thumb is on top of the rest. In this case, you should lie down for 0, 5-1 minutes, then open your fist by spreading your finger as much as possible. You must repeat at least 4 repetitions for each hand.
- Finger warming. You should place your palm on a hard surface and press firmly. Alternatively, lift each finger up and repeat 10 times for each hand.
- Contact. You should turn your hand to your palm and make a circle by alternately joining the tips of each finger with the tip of your thumb. Each contact should be maintained for 0. 5-1 minutes. Repeat 4 or more for each hand.
- Thumb. The palm should be on a firm surface. You should move your thumb as far as possible from the rest. You should stop at the extreme point for 0, 5-1 minutes, then return to the starting position. Repeat 10-15 times for each hand. Do the exercises every 2-3 days.
- We have another thumb. You should turn your hand towards you with your palm, bring your thumb to the side as much as possible, and then bend the tip so that it touches the bottom of the little finger. At this point, you should stop for 0, 5-1 minutes. Repeat 4 or more times per hand.
- The brush stretches. You should place your palm on the table and straighten the brush as flat as possible. In this case, you should stay 0, 5-1 minutes. Repeat 4 for each hand.
- The finger stretches. You should turn your hand towards you with your palm and bend your fingers so that they touch the skin at the bases. In this case, you should stretch for 0, 5-1 minutes, then straighten your fingers. Repeat 4 or more times per hand.
- Thumb extension. You should turn your hand to your palm and bend your thumb so that the tip touches the bottom of the index finger. In this case, you should stop for 0, 5-1 minutes, repeat 4 times.
- There is another option for extending the thumb. The starting position is the same. The thumb should be pulled to the bottom of the little finger by moving only the lower joint. Hold 0, 5-1 minutes at the extreme point, repeat 4 for each hand.
- Strengthen training. You need to take a soft ball and squeeze as much as possible, standing at the extreme point for a few seconds. Repeat 10-15 times for each hand. Exercise itself should be done every 2-3 days, not every day, giving your hands a rest.
- Pinch. This workout also needs a soft ball. One thumb on one side should be squeezed to have all the others on the other side. In this case, you should stop for 0, 5-1 minutes. You need to repeat 10-15 times for each hand. Exercise every 2-3 days.
In addition to such exercises, it is useful to work with clay or plasticine. The material can simply be rolled and kneaded or made in various crafts.
Finger gymnastics should not be done when the pain is very strong. In this case, the sport can only hurt.
One of the principles of treatment of various joint pathologies is proper nutrition.
Diet should be organized according to the following principles:
- Weight normalization. This is necessary for deviations in any direction. In the case of impaired fat metabolism, lipids accumulate on the joints.
- Salt restriction. If there is too much of this in the body, the joints lose their elasticity.
- Avoid alcohol.
- For gout, you need to pay attention to plant foods to alkalize the body.
- Reduce animal protein intake. The amino acids in it penetrate the synovium and cause inflammation and pain.
- It is better to reject meat broths or use secondary broths.
- It is better to use meat as a cutlet, meatballs, meatballs, not in pure form.
- With gout, you should avoid oily fish, caviar, cod liver, intestines, eggs, butter, sour cream, nuts.
- After pre-processing of sweets, confectionery, cereals, you should give up ready-made products.
- The diet should be saturated with vitamin C, for this you need citrus, blueberries, apples, bell peppers, black currants, Brussels sprouts, broccoli.
Preventing any disease is easier than treating it. The following measures are appropriate for the prevention of various joint lesions of the fingers:
- Proper nutrition. The diet should be rich in fresh fruits and vegetables, complex carbohydrates, lean protein foods and unsaturated fatty acids.
- Adequate intake of vitamins and minerals. If these are not enough in the diet, you should apply to the funds from the pharmacy.
- The right drinking regimen. Dehydration slows down the metabolism, which disrupts blood circulation and nutrition of the joints and reduces the volume of synovial fluid inside. Drinking regimen should be based on still water. On average, you need to drink 2 liters of fluid a day.
- No bad habits.
- Adequate physical activity. Normal speed of metabolic processes in the body, good blood circulation, is important for strengthening periarticular muscles and ligaments.
- Special gymnastics for fingers. It is especially important that the fingers are exposed to constant stress. This is common in some athletes and professions.
- Authorized turn of activity and rest. The night's sleep should be complete.
- Minimum stress.
- Regular medical examinations. They can detect the initial stage or preconditions for the development of pathology, which allows you to take the necessary measures in a timely manner.
Pain in the joints of the fingers can not be ignored. Even in the absence of accompanying symptoms, such a phenomenon may be the first sign of serious pathology. An integrated approach is used in the treatment of joint diseases. Therapeutic methods should be prescribed by a physician, as each patient needs an individual approach.