Diseases of the musculoskeletal system cause significant limitations in human mobility. It is necessary to carry out timely treatment to avoid complications. Osteoarthritis of the knee joint is the most common cause of damage to the joints of the skeletal bones and the most common cause of disability. But you can get rid of the disease by consulting a doctor in time.
Osteoarthritis of the knee joint is the unofficial name of the disease. In medicine, this is called osteoarthritis. The word consists of two ancient Greek words - bone and joint. Other synonyms:
- deforming osteoarthritis or DOA for short (the first word in the name refers to the main clinical symptom - joint deformity);
- gonarthrosis (from the combination of the ancient Greek words "knee" and "playful").
Sometimes the disease is mistakenly called arthritis, but traditionally this term refers to connective tissue disease that is not associated with osteoarthritis.
The essence of osteoarthritis is that the cartilage tissue covering the surface of the joint is damaged, resulting in inflammation, dysfunction of the bone joints and pain. Unfortunately, this is a very common pathology, mainly diagnosed in the elderly (especially overweight) and in young athletes due to injury.
For effective treatment, a thorough examination of a patient with osteoarthritis is necessary to determine the causes of problems, especially those related to the musculoskeletal system. Often the following factors cause the disease:
Causes and symptoms
For effective treatment, it is necessary to conduct a thorough examination of the patient with osteoarthritis to determine the causes of problems, especially with the musculoskeletal system. Often the following factors cause the disease:
- leg fractures;
- dislocations, cartilage injuries, inflammation;
- metabolic disorders;
- endocrine diseases;
- weakness of garden apparatus;
- hereditary tendency;
- autoimmune diseases and infections that damage joint tissue.
Late consultation with a doctor threatens with persistent pain in the knee area and complete loss of joint mobility.To prevent this, if you experience a knee crisis while walking and painful sensations that worsen when descending or ascending stairs, you should register for a consultation with a specialist. If treatment is not started at this stage, the condition will worsen - there will be no pain, limited movement and the knee will be deformed.
The more you don't see a doctor, the more difficult, time-consuming, and expensive Gonarthrosis treatment will be.
Osteoarthritis is diagnosed by a doctor. It not only determines the disease, but also the degree. There are three of them:
- First. It is possible to treat the disease at an early stage, because in this case there is no morphological disorder in the tissue, the muscles weaken, but have not yet changed and begin to tolerate joint load worse due to the biochemical composition of the cavity fluid and synovial membrane dysfunction. menisci. Excessive use causes inflammation and pain.
- Second. At this stage, the cartilage and meniscus begin to collapse, the load on it causes pathological growths in the bone tissue, narrowing of the joint space. For this reason, the size of the knee increases and it looks ugly. Treatment of bilateral gonarthrosis of the second knee joint is already more difficult than in the first stage. Pain and inflammation become chronic.
- Third. This degree is already considered severe. At the same time, the bone deformation is clearly expressed, the axis of the joint is changed, so the mechanical load is not properly distributed. Joint joints are shortened, so natural movements are limited, and then the foot may become completely immobile. It is impossible to treat grade 3 osteoarthritis of the knee joint without surgery because the disease is so advanced.
If the pain seems to be tolerated for a long time, people think that they have osteoarthritis only in the first stage and delay going to the doctor. But this idea is not true. Every day the load on the main elements of the joint, which are already beginning to collapse, increases, and pathological changes can lead to the complete destruction of the joint and acute dysfunction of the limbs.
The progression of the disease is accompanied by characteristic symptoms. The pain occurs in the middle of the night, even if the leg is motionless. Hardness is felt in the mornings.
After walking a certain distance, then it becomes difficult to walk at the beginning of the movement. In severe cases, a person can not normally walk 100 meters, it is painful to stand and sit. You have to move with the help of special equipment.
In the first stage, a little lameness manifests itself later. As a result, walking, using public transportation, performing professional duties, daily functions, and even self-care may be completely impossible.
Folk recipes, pharmaceutical compresses and ointments can not help get rid of the disease, because the approach must be comprehensive.Recovery is usually only possible in a hospital where one doctor will treat knee osteoarthritis.Decides what recommendations to give to the patient, based on the complaints and associated pathologies. The following points are generally mandatory:
- reducing the load on the joints;
- compliance with orthopedic regimen;
- physical therapy (sports therapy);
- is receiving physical therapy.
All this slows the development of osteoarthritis and prevents loss of motor function. It should be noted that the methods used will largely depend on the capabilities of the hospital and this or that physiotherapy equipment. The patient's spa treatment or medication selection, diet, technique, etc. It is best if you have the opportunity to go to a private orthopedic clinic, where a modern approach will be provided.
USE OF MEDICINES
Inflammatory processes and painful sensations make treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee impossible without drugs in the form of tablets, creams, ointments and injections. In the first stage, you can use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs - Diclofenac, Indomethacin, Nimesulide, etc. In the second and third parts, you often have to fight inflammation with steroids - Triamcinolone, Hydrocortisone. The same hormones are used during acute pain.
In addition, you should inject intramuscularly and intraarticularly with drugs that improve the condition of cartilage tissue (vasodilators and chondroprotectors).
Significant improvements can be made using physical therapy. The following methods are considered the most effective:
- Shock wave therapy. This method has worked well for the last 20 years. Its essence is to affect the affected area with a special device that emits radial acoustic waves that activate the blood supply and stimulate tissue repair.
- Myostimulation. This therapy targets the muscles surrounding the joint. Weak current pulses increase leg mobility, reduce pain, and increase endurance during physical exertion.
- Phonophoresis. This technique harmoniously combines ultrasound treatment and the use of products in the form of ointments, gels and creams. In general, such dosage forms are absorbed only 5-7%, but high-frequency ultrasonic vibrations heat the tissues and increase absorption several times. In addition to a good therapeutic effect, it saves on the use of expensive drugs.
- Ozone treatment. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect can be achieved by affecting the joint with active oxygen. It is a good supplement and in some cases an alternative to hormonal medications.
Pain during physical exertion in a joint causes a person to try to avoid it. In the long run, this threatens physical inactivity, leading to muscle atrophy and joint weakness. Of course, during the exacerbation, the load on the joint should be completely removed, but physiotherapy exercises should be started a few days after the inflammation and pain are eliminated.
It is believed that proper and consistent exercise therapy exercises can relieve the patient of the need for surgery. Today, experienced professionals have developed many special methods of daily training that strengthen muscles and increase strength and endurance, prevent the destruction of pathological tissues, restore joint mobility and range of motion.
The most important thing about this type of treatment is regularity.A good effect is achieved only by patients who understand the need for lifestyle changes and strictly follow the doctor's recommendations regarding the ratio of physical activity and joint rest periods.
Lymphatic drainage, massage, manual therapy is a good addition to medication, physiotherapy and sports therapy. They are indispensable for immobile patients and improve the condition of muscles, joints and ligaments.
Another method of passive kinesitherapy is mechanotherapy. Special devices are used to increase the effectiveness of treatment - vibration simulators, weight materials, mechanical massagers.
Elongation of the joints, where the gap of the cavity is mechanically increased, allows to get rid of pain and stop destructive processes. Regular use of this therapy prolongs knee health for years.
Since obesity is often the cause of osteoarthritis, patients with this diagnosis should pay attention to weight loss. Weight loss will be followed by fatigue and constant tiredness. Sometimes the diet is not enough, then bariatric surgery is required, but such cases are rare.
Another indicator of adherence to a certain diet can be any pathology associated with osteoarthritis. There is no need for a special diet if there is no obesity or other diseases accompanied by the need to change eating habits. However, you can help strengthen the affected cartilage tissue by including collagen-rich foods in your diet, including jelly and aspic, fish oil, berries and fruits. It is better to avoid harmful foods such as sugar, carbonated and alcoholic beverages.
In advanced cases, the quickest solution to musculoskeletal problems is surgery. The following types of surgery are prescribed for osteoarthritis:
- Puncture allows you to get rid of fluid accumulated in the joint space. As a result, inflammation is reduced, which restores knee mobility.
- Arthroscopy allows you to clean the surface of the joint from damaged tissue. This is done using fine flexible tools using a camcorder, thus avoiding the fragmentation of the joint space.
- Periarticular osteotomy allows you to change the angle of one of the bones that make up the knee joint, which redistributes the load, increases mobility and reduces pain. This intervention is very traumatic, because the bone needs to be sawed.
- Endoprosthetic allows the diseased joint to be replaced with a biocompatible structure. At the same time, the previous range of motion is restored, but the operation is quite new and very complicated, after which a long rehabilitation is required.
In the first stage, surgery is rarely required. The second is only sometimes necessary, the third can not do without it.
In each case, many treatments depend on which doctor to apply. The specialist will choose the best method, and the patient's task is to strictly follow the recommendations of the orthopedist. It is the only way to get a good result. This is confirmed by patients diagnosed with gonarthrosis.